Interrogation of FBGs and FBGs arrays using standard telecom DFB diode

An efficient fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor integration system, which utilizes a small number of standard Telecom opto-electronics components, is presented in this paper. Wavelength-swept optical pulses were generated by driving a standard telecom DFB laser diode by high amplitude (>3 A) and short duration (300 ns) current pulses. A total laser diode’s wavelength sweep in excess of 10 nm was achieved, which allows for simultaneous interrogation of several FBGs within similar wavelengths. The application of short duration wavelength-swept optical pulses also allows for time division multiplexing of small FBG arrays containing FBGs with overlapping characteristic wavelengths. When a short, wavelength-swept optical pulse is launched into the fiber containing single or multiple FBGs along its length, fractions of the launched pulse are back-reflected towards the detector. Since the launched pulse wavelength changes over the time, the reflections from the FBGs occur in the time moments that depend on the FBGs’ characteristic wavelengths. Measurement of the time delay among back-reflected optical pulses is then used to determine the FBGs characteristic wavelengths. The experimental system demonstrated FBG wavelength readout resolution, which exceeded 3 pm at 1 KHz sampling rate, maximum sampling rate of over 40 KHz, and capability to readout/demultiplex over 30 FBGs located down a single optical fiber.